πŸ– What Is A Group Of Horses Called?

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What is a group of horses called? | Old Farmer's Almanac
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Q. How does feeding a large amount of good quality hay to a group of 15 or fewer horses on winter pasture covered in snow at two or more day.


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Significance of Group Composition for the Welfare of Pastured Horses
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The man sent his son out to the field on a large pony to round up and bring in the group of horses. While the son was doing this we looked at a few in the barn.


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Fureix et al. Unfamiliar yearlings in peer groups were especially aggressive. Three groups A, B, C included only sub-adults 1β€”3 years old , two groups K, M were composed of adults only 4 years and older and six groups P, Q, R, S, T, U were breeding groups with one stallion each, where young foals less than one month old accompanied their dams. This allows us to compare frequency distributions in some basic classes like sex and age, as well as looking for patterns that might be influenced by group composition. Data were recorded with a pencil by hand, in notebooks or in a handheld computer Psion , and transferred into computer spreadsheets.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Such a lack of group stability is considered to be one of the risk factors for potential injuries [ 25 ]. The horses in these studies had all been handled, some extensively but some very little. These groups represent most types of groups one can expect to come across in Iceland. Results from the majority of the studies have been published previously [ 9 , 23 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ]. Interestingly, the horses allogroomed more if they had few preferred allogrooming partners. The group factors considered are group size, density of horses in the pasture, sex ratio, proportion of adults, numbers of young foals present, median number of friends, group stability and the presence of stallions. Comparison of social behaviour of horses in 20 groups of Icelandic horses in pastures, showed that aggression was lowest where the group composition was like the natural system, i. Since the welfare of horses correlates with low aggression levels and social contact opportunities, information of this kind is important. The superscripts on group IDs refer to previous published analyses of the data from the groups. In the wintertime, the pastures are often free of snow and ice, in which case the horses had the same access to the grazing area as during other times of the year. All the members of the studied groups belong to the Icelandic breed, which is the only breed found in the country, making the question about possible breed characteristics irrelevant. The same methodology was applied in all studies. The same is true for groups of high stability kept under semi-natural conditions [ 23 , 25 ]. By combining the data from the 20 groups, we intend to strengthen previous analyses of relations between social behaviour and group features. The data are drawn from independent studies of social interactions of individuals in 20 groups of Icelandic horses that were undertaken in the period β€” Table 1. Affiliation bonds between individuals are inferred from the choice of preferred allogrooming partners, play partners, a tendency to stay with certain individuals when resting, grazing or traveling or from affiliative approaches [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. The highest aggression was found in groups of unfamiliar yearlings. Horse owners should all be aware of the importance of planning the composition of horse groups and to keep the membership as stable as possible in order to ensure good welfare. Some individuals 32 were present in two groups, but in the analysis they were randomly deleted from one of the two. Two groups D, F which did not have a stallion included dams and young foals in addition to sub-adults of both sexes and adult geldings. Management practices that minimizes aggression and give the horses ample opportunities to take part in affiliative interactions are to be recommended. Allogrooming was most frequent in groups with relatively more young horses and in unstable and small groups. In four R, S, T, U of those groups some sub-adults were present 9 months to 3 years old. Unusually long-lasting bonds between individuals in a family band [ 6 ] may have contributed to the evolution of complex cognitive skills. Therefore, the pasture size for all was set at ha. Horses are highly social and as recent research has shown [ 4 , 5 ] their cognition level and learning abilities are well advanced. Social bonds are likely to play an important role for social cohesion in group living domestic horses [ 3 ]. Later, they groom less but prefer certain individuals. Some were stabled at six months of age for halter training but then released. By nature, horses are highly social animals, depending on the group for survival. The definitions of the types of behaviour Table 2 were the same as given in McDonnell [ 8 ] and used in Granquist et al. Later, a comparison between four mixed groups in Iceland without a stallion and six groups with a stallion confirmed this; in groups where a stallion was present, the horses showed less agonistic behaviour [ 23 ]. The data are a collection of records of social interactions of Icelandic horses in 20 groups of at least eight horses. Most of the pastures are characterized by small tussocks dominated by grasses or sedges. We explore how herd composition and management factors correlate with frequencies of social interactions in horse groups. In this study, data from several independent studies of social interactions among pastured horses in Iceland are used in order to identify factors that are associated with low levels of agonistic behaviour but enhance opportunities for behaviour that strengthens bonds among horses, such as mutual grooming. Colts are generally castrated when 11 months old, and all the sub-adults were treated for internal parasites once a year. The frequency of mutual grooming is very variable and may depend on a variety of factors, such as weather, parasites and social factors [ 21 ]. In Iceland, training generally starts when horses are 4β€”5 years old. However, the same study showed that the stallions were not dominant over the mares and they did not intervene actively during ongoing interactions between the mares [ 23 , 34 ]. In recent years, the need to address social needs as well has received increased attention [ 1 , 2 ]. The groups were located at farms in different parts of Iceland Table 1. If a horse came too close to an observer, the observer would move away slowly. These groups can be composed of peers only or mixed with respect to sex and age [ 24 , 30 ]. Consideration of the welfare of farm animals has been focused on physical well-being for most of the last century. All obvious social interactions of an agonistic aggressive, submissive nature and one type of affiliative behaviour, i. Much less is known about frequencies of allogrooming than agonistic behaviours. It is fair to conclude that horses can predict the outcome of encounters with familiar individuals and find ways of reducing tensions [ 19 , 20 , 21 ]. Very similar horses in the same group were further marked by coloured tape in the mane or tail. In groups without a stallion, the presence of foals is also associated with low aggression. Most of the geldings in the groups were or had been used for riding and many of the mares too. Stallions play an important role by herding their mares and interacting with youngsters. The horses were less agonistic when in groups with young foals and where group membership was stable. No fertilizers are applied in these pastures and the grass is not cut. In the most extensive studies in this research [ 9 , 35 ], comparison of these two behaviour types with the other aggressive acts shows that threat with ears is by far the most dominant aggressive acts, especially amongst the adult horses unpublished results. Here we use the individual data to show the overall frequency distributions of different types of behaviour, compare the sexes and estimate the effect of age. As argued by van Dierendonck et al. In all cases, the resource availability opportunity to graze, quantity of grass and other vegetation, access to hay and water was such that the welfare of the horses was ensured. Of special interest are the low levels of agonistic behaviours in breeding groups where one stallion was present. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Because of their social nature, horses need to have plenty of opportunities to interact with others to establish bonds and learn from their elders. Horses have many ways of recognizing their group members [ 13 , 14 ], for instance by employing long-term memories of previous interactions [ 15 ] and using their ability to discriminate between individuals [ 16 , 17 ] and recognize social status of familiar horses relative to their own [ 18 ]. With frequent changes in group composition, levels of interactions are higher, especially agonistic interactions between resident horses and newcomers [ 24 , 25 ]. Studying their social interactions and comparing the nature and frequency of such interactions in different social environments can improve understanding of the cognitive abilities of horses. In the present study, our main aim is to investigate how group composition and other variables see below influence the frequencies of both agonistic and affiliative behaviour in horses. Care was taken not to interact with the horses in the field. Other factors are also known to be influential, such as the stability of the group, access to resources, density and the presence of a stallion [ 13 , 23 ]. Furthermore, the combined data may reveal unknown influences of group features on social behaviour. Typically, groups of horses are kept in pastures or in open stables or are let outdoors into paddocks for part of the day. Until that time, they are kept outside throughout the year in groups. The complexities and limitations of the data prohibit useful statistical modelling so the results are presented descriptively. The group characteristics e. Group stability with respect to membership is high in most semi-feral groups [ 22 ]. However, as Hartmann et al. The group composition was variable. The data are based on independent studies of 20 groups of Icelandic horses, carried out over a period spanning 15 years and involving a total of horses, all kept on pastures of similar vegetation. All the groups were kept in spacious lowland pastures median density 0. Different methodologies and limited information in published papers often make direct comparison of data impossible [ 9 ]. The first published study in , which featured a mixed, stable group without a stallion, indicated that the horses were more socially active compared to studies conducted in other countries of groups with a stallion [ 9 ]. Binoculars were used to observe the horses if they were some distance away. In addition to serving the role of forming social bonds [ 11 , 27 ], allogrooming following agonistic events is likely to reduce tension [ 28 ]. The four breeding groups at Sel Table 1 shared the same pasture ha. The marking did not influence the behaviour of the horses. The total number of horses studied was between 9 months and 26 years of age. The horses allogroomed more in groups with relatively more young horses, which suggests they are forming bonds. It has been argued that close bonds such as these are of the same nature as between friends among humans and should, therefore, be called friendships [ 11 , 12 ]. This has to be remembered when aggression rates are compared to studies where these behaviour types are included [ 25 ]. Stability of the group with respect to group composition is of great importance; the horses are less aggressive in the more stable groups. Interesting and informative patterns emerge which can be of use both in management and in future studies. The composition of a group is known to influence the type and frequencies of social interactions [ 24 , 31 , 32 ]. Horses were recognized by their characteristics, e. Although the stallions kept their bands within their home range most of the time [ 34 ], all groups were seen to travel out of their home ranges at times. This allows both stable dominance relationships and stable networks of friendships, the latter most often established between two horses of similar age and the same sex [ 6 , 9 , 23 ]. Feral horses show low levels of aggressive interactions [ 6 , 21 , 26 ]. The environmental factors considered are season and whether or not hay was provided.